Refining process for converting light, gaseous olefins
into high-octane gasoline components (reverse of cracking).
Class of hydrocarbons that have
at least one benzene ring as part of their
structure. Generally describes benzene and benzene derivatives.
Natural gas associated with oil accumulations, either dissolved in oil or
found as a cap of free gas above oil in reservoir.
An aromatic hydrocarbon present
to a minor degree in most crude oils. (Products manufactured
from benzene include styrene, phenol, nylon and synthetic detergents.)
Either of two saturated hydrocarbons,
or alkanes, with chemical formula. In both compounds carbon
atoms are joined in an open chain.
Atomic number is 6; element is in group 14 (or IVa) of periodic
table. Carbon content of a hydrocarbon
determines, to a degree, hydrocarbon's burning characteristics
Colourless, odourless, and slightly acid-tasting gas, sometimes-called
carbonic acid gas, molecule of which consists of one atom of
carbon joined to two atoms of oxygen. Carbon
dioxide in atmosphere tends to prevent escape of outgoing long-wave
radiation from Earth to outer space; as more heat is produced
and less escapes, temperature of Earth increases. Most important
man-made greenhouse gas in UK
accounting for 81% of direct global warming potential from national
greenhouse emissions in 1990.
Synthetic chemical that is odourless, non-toxic, non-flammable,
and chemically inert. Released into atmosphere, chlorine-containing
chemicals rise and are broken down by sunlight, whereupon chlorine
reacts with and destroys ozone molecules.
period much of world was covered with vegetation growing in swamps.
This vegetation died and became submerged under water. As decomposition
took place, vegetable matter lost oxygen and hydrogen atoms,
leaving a peat deposit with a high percentage of carbon. As time
passed, layers of sand and mud settled from water over some of
peat deposits. Pressure of these overlying layers, as well as
movements of earth's crust and sometimes volcanic heat, acted
to compress and harden deposits, thus producing coal.
Mixture of base substance and additives
used to lubricate drill
bit and to counter act natural pressure
in formation. Drilling mud provides circulation, flushing rock
cuttings from bottom of well
bore to surface.
Drilling Mud Nomenclature
Oil Based Mud (OBM), Pseudo Oil Based
Mud (POBM), Water Based Mud
Compounds formed by combination of acids and alcohols.
Chemical formed by fermentation or synthesis.
Or Ethylene simplest member of class of aliphatic organic
compounds called alkenes, which contain at least one carbon-carbon
double bond. Ethylene is a colourless, slightly sweet-smelling
gas of formula H2C=CH2. It is slightly
soluble in water and is produced in commercial amounts by cracking
and fractional distillation of petroleum
and from natural gas.
Mixture of lighter liquid hydrocarbons
used chiefly as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Produced
by fractional distillation of petroleum;
by condensation or adsorption from natural
gas; by thermal or catalytic decomposition of petroleum or
its fractions; by hydrogenation
of producer gas or coal; or by polymerisation
of hydrocarbons of lower molecular
Reactive, colourless, odourless, and tasteless gaseous element
with atomic number of 1. Element is usually classed in group
1 (or Ia) of periodic table. Lightest of all gases, hydrogen
combines with carbon to form a variety
of gaseous, liquid and solid hydrocarbons.
Reacting coal with hydrogen at high pressures, usually in presence of a
Also marsh gas, gas composed of carbon
and hydrogen, first member of paraffin
or alkane series of hydrocarbons.
Methane contributed 12% (counting both direct and indirect global
warming effects) of UK national greenhouse
gas emissions in 1990. Oil and gas production accounted for
2% of national emissions in 1990.
Gas, occurring naturally, often found in association with
Odourless, tasteless, greasy substance, obtained as residue
from petroleum after lighter and more
volatile components have been boiled off. Purified residue is
obtained in form of a yellowish or decolourised semisolid, known
as petroleum jelly in form of a clear to faintly yellow liquid,
known as mineral oil.